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  (Courtesy) Pradeep Verma
                       ITALIAN BLUE CLUB
                           PART I
                       OPENING BIDS
1. Strong Openings = 17 +
   1C:  17+, unbalanced; 18+ balanced
   2D:  17 - 24, 4-4-4-1 distribution, any singleton
   2NT: 21-22 balanced
2. Weak Openings: 6 - 11
   2H/2S             : 6 or 7 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   3D/3H/3S (not 3C) : 6 or 7 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   3NT               : 7 carder minor with AKQ, nothing much else
   4C/4D/4H/4S       : 8 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
   5C/5D             : 8 carder suit, rule of 2 and 3
3. Normal Openings: 11 - 16                          
   1D                : May be 3 carder with C suit
   1H/1S             : Minimum 4 carder
   1NT (13-17)       : 13-15 with C suit and 3 carder H and S,  OR
                      16-17 any suit; BALANCED
   2C                : very good 5 carder or good 6 carder C
   3C                : very good 7 carder suit, 7-8 playing tricks
                           PART II
1. Response to 1C Openings (control showing) without intervention
   1D   : 0 - 5, maximum 2 controls
   1H   : 6+   , maximum 2 controls Forcing to 2NT level
   1S   : 3 controls, Game force
   1NT  : 4 controls, Game force
   2C   : 5 controls, Game force
   2D   : 6 controls, Game force
   2NT  : 7 controls, Game force and then you will not believe us
   2H/2S: 4-5, six carder points mostly in the suit
2. Responses to 1C opening (control showing) with intervention
   Intervention                     Response
   ------------                     --------
   Double                           Pass: 0 - 3
                                   1D  : 4 - 5
                                   Redouble: 4 - 5 C suit
                                   1H and above: as original
   1D/1H/1S                         Pass: for original 1D
                                   Double: for original 1H
                                   Next step and above: 3 controls etc
                                   2H/2S: as original
   1NT                              Pass: 0 - 5
                                   Double: for penalties (6+)
                                   2C/2D: 0 - 5, long suit, non-forcing
                                   2H/2S: as original
   2C/2D/2H/2S                      Double: for penalties
                                   2NT:    3 - 4 controls
                                   Cue bid: 5 or more controls
   3 level                          Pass: 0 - 6
                                   Double: For penalties
                                   Suit: non-forcing, contesting 7 - 8 points
        1) After intervention by 1D/1H/1S, Pass replaces 1D and Double replaces
           1H, gaining one step on 1D intervention and losing 1 step on 1S
        2) On intervention by double, opportunity is made available to show 
           0 - 3 or 4 -5 points.
        3) On intervention by 1NT or above, double is always for penalties
        4) On intervention at 2 level, 2NT and  cue bid show controls.
3. Development of 1 C Openings
   1D          1H/S unbalanced min 4 carder, canape' style for safety
   (0 - 5)     1NT (18 -20) balanced
                   2C: Gladiator, opener to bid 2D on way to signoff
                        2D      Pass to play
                                2H/2S to play
                                2NT six carder C with K or Q
                                3D  six carder D with K or Q
                    2D: Stayman
                   2H/2S Golden Misiere 5 carder with 5 points or 6 carder
                         with 4-5 points, points distributed in different 
                    2NT   Five card minor with KQ
                   3C/3D Six carder with KQ
                   4C/4D Texas
                2C/2D unbalanced hand, minimum 5 carder
               2H/2S/3C/3D Minimum 5 carder forcing 1 round (Jump bid)
                   Rebid same suit next round, non forcing
                   New suit, next round, forcing
               2NT (23-24) Balanced
                     Pass: Natural
                     3C  : Gladiator, opener to bid 3D followed by Pass/3H/3S
                           to play
                     3D  : Stayman
                     3H/3S: 4-5, 5 carder opener to cue bid with a fit (Axx 
                            or Kxx) or close at 3NT or 4H/4S
                     4C/4D: Texas
               3NT (25-26), Balanced
                    4C: Gladiator (0 - 3), opener to bid 4D followed by Pass/
                       4H/4S/4C/5D to play
                     4D: Stayman
                    4H/4S: Natural, 4 - 5 points
    1H                      1S: Minimum 5 carder, responses natural min 4 carder
    (6+, Max 2 controls     1NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
    forcing upto 2NT)            2C: Baron followed by 2NT, min non-forcing
                                     Any call at 3 level is forcing
                                 2D: Stayman followed by 2NT, min non-forcing
                                    Any call at 3 level is forcing
                                2H/2S: Minimum 5 carder
                                2NT: min, non-forcing
                             2NT: 23 - 24
                                3C: Baron
                                3D: Stayman
                            Jump in a suit, six carder semi solid, responder to
                            join with Qx or better
     1S (3 controls,         1NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
         game force)              2C: Baron
                                 2D: Stayman
                                 2H/2S: 5 carder
                            2C/2D/2H/2S: five carder
                                 Natural 4 carder by responder
     1NT (4 controls)        2C/2D/2H/2S: five carder
                            2NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
                                 3C: Baron
                                 3D: Stayman
                                 3H/3S: Five carder, opener to cue bid with a 
                                       fit (Axx or Kxx)
      2C (5 controls)        2D/2H/2S: Five carder, bids by responder natural
                                      4 carders
                            2NT: 18 - 20 balanced
                                 3C: Baron
                                 3D: Stayman
                                 3H/3S: Five carder, opener to cue bid with a 
      2D (6 controls)        same as above
      2H/2S (4-5, six carder) Natural
      (Most of the points in the suit)
      2NT (7 controls) 3C/3D/3H/3S: 5 carder
                       3NT: 18 - 20 Balanced
                           4C: Baron
                           4D: Stayman
                           4H/4S: Five carder
 1) 1D/1H: shows max 2 controls and then controls are shown step wise
 2) 1H is 6+ and forcing to 2NT level. If opener or responder bid 2NT after
    next bid by either, it shows minimum hand, which can either be passed or
    with more points, opener or responder should cross 2NT level with or without
 3) After 1D, opener bids canape' style for finding a fit on unbalanced hand 
    but after 1H/S etc response, opener bids naturally always 5 carder first
 4) After any response, opener bids NT on balanced hand after which responder's
    minimum C is gladiator and min D is stayman, if response was 1D and
    min C is Baron on any other response
 5) Baron is employed only by "RESPONDER" and not by opener. Opener must first
    show balanced hand by bidding NT
 6) Gladiator is employed only by "RESPONDER" to show 0 - 3 points and no game
    desire on his part
 7) With a fit (Axx, Kxx) opener or responder should raise to set the ground
    for cue-bidding at low level
4. Development of 2D openings (17-24, 4-4-4-1)
   Legend: NBS: Next below Singleton
                           +: Singleton
   2S (0 - 3) signoff      2NT: 17-20, S+
   (May be 3 carder)            Pass/3C/3D/3H/3S: Sign off
                          3C/3D/3S: 21-24 NBS (3C = D+, 3D = H+, 3S = C+)
                          3H/3NT: 23-24, S+
   2NT one weak six        3C/3S/3H/3S: NBS
   carder Max KJ, nothing         Actual suit or 3NT. With a fit opener can
   else in hand                   cue bid
   3C/3D/3H/3S: fair       suit: Actual singleton (NOTE: NOT NBS)
   6 carder, min AJ              Responder with fit bids:
   nothing else in hand          1st step: suit with 1 honor, no singleton
                                2nd step: suit with 2 honors, no singleton
                                3rd step: suit with side singleton
                                        cue bid by opener on which responder
                                        bids his singleton
   2H relay       2S 17 - 20 Major +
                      2NT Relay
                          3C: 17 - 20 H+
                              3H Relay
                                  3S  17 - 18 }
                                  3NT 19 - 20 }
                                     4H Relay for opener to show controls
                                     starting from 3 upwards after which 5H is 
                                     relay asking for Qs. Any other call is
                                     a signoff
                            3D: 17 - 18, S+
                               3S Relay, opener to show controls after which
                               4S is relay asking for Q. Any other call is
                            3H: 19 - 20, S+, 3S Relay for controls and then 
                               4S for Q.  Any other call, sign off.
                 2NT 17 - 20 , C+ (NBS)
                       3C Relay
                          3D: 17 - 18 }
                          3H: 19 - 20 }
                             4C Relay for controls and then 5C for Q. 
                            Any other call is signoff
                  3C 17 - 20 D+ (NBS)
                       3D Relay
                          3H: 17 - 18 }
                          3S: 19 - 20 }
                             4D Relay for controls and then 5D for Q. Any other
                             call is signoff
                  3D: 21-24 H+ (NBS)
                     3H Relay for controls starting from 5 and then 4H for Q
                      Any other call is signoff
                  3H: 21-24 S+ (NBS)
                     3S relay for controls starting from 5 and then 4S for Q.
                      Any other call is signoff
                  3S: 21-24 C+ (NBS)
                     4C relay for controls starting from 5 and then 5C for Q.
                      Any other call is signoff
                 3NT: 21-24 D+ (only call upto 3NT level) 
                     4D relay for controls starting from 5 and then 5D for Q.
                      Any other call is signoff
1) Response of 2S may be 3 carder with a very weak hand to sign off
2) Response of 2NT shows poor hand with 6 carder and opener bids NBS.
3) Response of 3 of a suit shows fair suit, which opener with min and no
   fit should pass in a hurry. With a fit, opener bids his "ACTUAL SINGLETON"
   and not NBS, on which responder shows quality of his suit and holding of a
   singleton or otherwise.
4) Response of 2H is relay asking for point range and singleton. Opener's first
   three steps are for 17 - 20 range(2S: major +, 2NT C+, 3C: D+) and next four
   steps are 21 - 24 range(3D=H+,3H+S+,3S=C+,3NT=D+)
5) After responder has employed 2H relay, any call by him is a sign off unless 
   he continues to bid opener's singleton.
5. Development of 2NT opening (21-22 Balanced)
   3C Gladiator                   3D
                                    Pass/3H/3S/4C To Play
                                    3NT: six carder C with K or Q
                                    4D:  six carder D with K or Q (opener may 
                                        like to play in 4NT)
   3D  Stayman                    3H major (does not deny S)
                                    3S: 5 carder opener to cue bid with fit
                                    3NT: To play
                                    4C: relay asking for distribution
                                       4D: D suit (3-4-4-2) or (2-4-4-3)
                                       4H: Only H suit (3-4-3-3)
                                       4S: S suit (4-4-3-2) or (4-4-2-3)
                                       4NT: C suit (3-4-2-4) or (2-4-3-4)
                                 3S (S major, denies H)
                                    3NT: To play
                                    4C: relay for distribution
                                      4D: D suit (4-3-4-2) or (4-2-4-3)
                                      4S: only S suit (4-3-3-3)
                                      4NT: C suit(4-3-2-4) or (4-2-3-4)
                                  3NT No major
                                    4C Relay for minors
                                      4D: D suit 3-3-4-3
                                      4H: C and D with 3 carder H (2-3-4-4)
                                      4S: C and D with 3 carder S (3-2-4-4)
                                      4NT: C suit 3-3-3-4
                                      5C : 5 carder C
                                      5D : 5 carder D
   3H/3S suit 5 carder            3NT no fit
                                 Raise: support, less than Axx, Kxx
                                 Cue bid: Axx or Kxx support
   3NT to play
   4C/4D                          Texas
   4H/S(very good six carder      To Play
        slam aspiration)
1) 3 C by responder is gladiator, making it possible to sign off in 3D
2) 3D is stayman and followed by 4 C is asking for distribution
                       PART III
               Development of Weak Calls
1. Development of 2H/2S (6-11 Rule of 2 and 3) six carder
   2S/2NT Relay for points and quality (P and Q)
          Stepwise response (P before Q)
          1st step: 6 - 9, two top honors missing
          2nd step: 6 - 9, with two top honors
          3rd step: 10 - 11, two top honors missing
          4th step: 10 - 11, with two top honors
          5th step: Suit headed with AKQ
   New Suit:  Forcing one round
2. Development of 3NT (solid 7-carder minor headed with AKQ)
   Pass: To play
   4C relay asking for singleton(+)
         4D: D+
         4H: H+
         4S: S+
         4NT: No +
         5C: D +                <<< Remember >>> 5C is D+
         5D: C +                <<< Remember >>> 5D is C+
3. Development of other weak openings
New suit is forcing one round
Another new suit next round game force.
                        PART IV
1. FOR OPENER: Single suiter
   i) Hand with 13-14 is considered weak. Hand with 15-16 is considered strong
      ONLY if the suit is good.
  ii) Weak hand is shown by bidding min. NT, rebid or raise
 iii) Strong hand is shown by jump bid. 
       2NT: good six carder, max AJ
       In suit: semi solid six carder
  iv) Balanced 16-17 hand is opened 1NT
   v) With 13-16, C suit, opening bids are
           1D : 13-14 VUL, weak 4 or 5 carder C
           1NT: 13-14 NON VUL or 15 VUL, weak 4 or 5 carder C
           2C : 13-16, very good C suit
           3C : 13-16 seven carder very good C suit, 7-8 playing tricks
2. FOR OPENER: Two Suiter canape' style
   i) Weak hand is shown by higher, then lower suit (second suit is at least as
      long as first suit, may be longer), or by NT or raise. After 1NT response
      canape' is not guaranteed as bid of lower second suit is to find best fit.
  ii) Weak hand with 4 D and 4S is opened 1S with tolerance for H, otherwise 1D
 iii) Strong hand is shown by:
          reverse(not at 1 level): Second suit, 5 carder
          Jump in second suit: Second suit semi-solid six carder (except when
                              second suit is C in which case it shows 4 carder
                              C and semisolid six carder first suit)
          Jump in partner's suit: when opener was himself going to reverse in 
                                 that suit
3. FOR RESPONDER: single suiter
   i) 1 over 1 is 6+ (one round force), 1NT is 8-10, 2 over 1 is 11+ forcing to 
  ii) Second round jump in own suit is 10-11, semi solid six carder
 iii) Second round jump in opener's 1 D suit is 9-10 non forcing but in opener's
      1H/S suit is 12+, SuperFit, forcing
  iv) New suit at 3 level with or without a jump is forcing
   v) hands with 12+ are shown by:
           Reverse : second suit five carder (Responder uses 2C or 2D as
                     first bid, even with 3 carder but with some
                    values, to prepare for reverse
           Jump in a new suit: Semi-solid six carder
           Cue bid in opponents' suit, opener to bid NT with a stopper
           Second round jump in opener's major: SuperFit (Min 4 card support 
                                                with two top honors.
           Using SuperFit calls (See item 5)
4. FOR RESPONDER: Two suiter
   i) Hands upto 11 points are bid in canape' style,  higher then lower or NT 
      or raise
  ii) Hands with 12+ are shown by:
             Reverse at 2 level: first suit always min 4 carder except when it
               or higer          is D three carder with values
             Second round jump in new suit: first suit min 4 carder, second suit
                                semi solid six carder
5. FOR RESPONDER: SUPERFIT calls in opener's major
   SUPERFIT means 12+, minimum 4 card support with two top honors in opener's
   first major or five card support in opener's second major where opener was
   going to reverse in that suit.
   Responder shows controls (A or K, not singleton or void) with superfit as
   i) 1H/S by opener followed by rebid of 2H/2S/2NT
      2C - 4C        : control in C, not in D
      2D - 4D        : control in D, not in C
      2C - 4D        : Alike controls in C and D (A for Ascending)
      2D - 4C        : Different controls in C and D (D for Descending)
  ii) 1S by opener followed by 2H
      2C/2D - 3S     : Superfit in S, control in C/D, control in other minor not
                      denied. Opener was going to employ superfit call if rebid
                      was 2S or 2NT
      2C/2D - 4C     : Superfit in H, 5 card support. Responder was going to 
                      reverse in H, control in C, control in D not denied
      2C/2D - 4D     : Superfit in H, 5 card support. Responder was going to
                      reverse in H, control in D, no control in C
      2C/2D - 4H     : Superfit in H, 5 card support, Responder was going to 
                      reverse in H, C or D control,  minimum hand
      2C/2D - 3H     : Superfit in H, 5 card support, Responder was going to
                      reverse in H, better hand, inviting cue bidding
 iii) 1H by opener followed by 2S
      2C/2D - 4C     : Fit in H, responder was going to employ superfit call, 
                      control in C/D. control in other minor not denied
      2C/2D - 4D     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
                      in S, no controls promised in C or D, better hand
                      inviting cue bid
      2C/2D - 4S     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
                      in S, minimum hand, control in C and D not denied
      2C/2D - 3S     : Fit in S, 5 card support, responder was going to reverse
                      in S, better hand, inviting cue bidding
   i) On rebid of same major or 2NT, responder's 2C/2D followed by 4C/4D shows 
      controls and type of controls in C/D
  ii) On opener's 1S/2H, responder's 2C/2D followed by jump to 3S shows superfit
      in S and jump to 4C/D shows reversible hand in H and control in C/D but
      jump to 4H shows minimum hand denying controls in C/D. With 
      better hand, responder raises 2H to 3H, still showing reversible hand and
      inviting cue bidding
 iii) On opener's 1H/2S reverse, responder's 2C/2D followed by jump to 4C shows
      reversible hand in H and jump to 4D shows reversible hand in S.
      Jump to 4S shows minimum reversible hand and raise to 3S shows better
      reversible hand in S.
6. SLAM Bidding
   i) 4NT is Ace asking ONLY of bid by opener or responder in second round
      of bidding or when it is with a jump. Otherwise, if suit has matched and 
      4NT is bid after cue-bids, it shows willingness to play at 5 level and 
      asks for continuation of cue bidding. If suit is not matched, it is
      QUANTITATIVE asking partner to bid six with additional values or else
      sign off.
  ii) Principle of fast approach means that after strong opening support or
      after responder shows 12+, if partner jumps to game, there is no slam
      aspiration and hand is minimum, but if suit is matched with a single 
      raise, there is slam ambition and cue bids must continue below the game
 iii) When suit has matched, cue bid shows first or second round control (A,K
      singleton or void) starting from lowest bid. If a suit is bypassed, it 
      initially denies a control, but if that suit is bid next time it shows
      first round control in first cue bid and second round control in
      second cue bid.
  iv) After a jump bid, showing semi-solid six carder partner should raise with
      any three carder or Qx to set the scene for cue bidding.
   v) After cue bids, the partner holding minimum hand should not go beyond the
      game level. Crossing game level shows additional value.
  vi) Having bypassed a suit in cue bidding twice, and then bidding shows third
      round control i.e. Qxx or xx.
 vii) Jump to 5NT asks partner to show quality of the suit agreed. Partner is 
      to bid 7 with two top honors, otherwise:
      S Suit:         6S: Suit headed with A or K, min 4 carder
                     6H: Suit headed with A or K
                     6D: Suit headed with Q
                     5C: Suit headed with J or less
      H Suit          6H: Suit headed with A or K
                     6D: Suit headed with Q
                     6C: Suit headed with J or less
      D Suit          6D: Suit headed with A or K
                     6C: Suit headed with Q or less
      C Suit          6C: Suit lacks 2 top honors
viii) Responses to 4NT, if Ace asking are
      5C : 4 or 1
      5D : 3 or 0
      5H : Two Aces same rank (both majors or minors)
      5S : Two Aces mixed (neither same rank nor same color (S and D or H and C)
      5NT: Two Aces of same color (either both black or both red)
      To remember: 41-30-RMC (rank/mixed/color)
                       PART V
               DEVELOPMENT OF 1NT/2C/3C Calls
   13-15 with C suit, 16-17 any suit Balanced. 
   If 13-15, always with 3 carder H and 3 carder S
   2C     Relay asking for   2D: C Suit: 13 with 5 carder, 14 with 4 carder
   (8-11) range                  2S/2NT/3C: sign off
                                3D/3H/3S: 11 points, inviting
                                4H/4S: To play
                             2H: C suit, 14 with 5 carder or 15 with 4 carder
                                2S/2NT/3C/3D sign off
                                3H/3S: 11 points, inviting
                                 4H/4S: To play
                            2S: 16-17 (S for Spades, S for Strong)
                                2NT Stayman
                                    3C  no major
                                    3D  both majors with 3 card D
                                    3H  H major
                                    3S  S major
                                    3NT both majors with 3 card C
                                 3C/3D signoff
                                3H/3S forcing
                             2NT:C suit 15 with 5 carder
                                3C/3D signoff
                                3H/3S inviting
                                4H/4S To play
   Double on intervention    Double on intervention shows 16-17
   replaces 2C. 
   2D stayman                2H: 16-17 H suit
   12+ Game force                2S/3C/3D: 5 carder, opener to raise with a 
                                fit (Axx or Kxx) or bid NT or show 2nd suit
                                 2NT: Opener to show second suit
                                3H : raise, opener to cue-bid (4 card support)
                                3S : Semi-solid six carder, opener to join on
                                     Qx or better
                                 3NT: To play
                                4H : To play (4 card support)
                           2S: 16-17 S major
                               2NT: opener to show second suit
                               3C/3D/3H: five carder, opener to cue bid with a
                                        fit and raise with Qxx or less support
                                        or bid NT
                                3S : opener to cue bid
                               3NT/4S: To play (4S 4 card support)
                           2NT:13-15 C suit
                               3C Relay for strength and length of C suit
                                  3D 13-14, 4 carder C suit
                                  3H 15, 4 carder C suit
                                  3S 13-14, 5 carder C suit
                                  3NT 15, 5 carder C suit
                               3D/3H/3S: five carder, opener to cue bid with a
                                        fit and raise with Qxx or less support
                                        or bid NT
                               3NT: To play
                            3C: 16-17 no major
                                3D Relay for minors
                                   3H: C suit
                                   3S: D suit
                                   3NT: both C and D suit
                            3D/3H/3S: 16-17 five carder
                                New suit five carder
                                Raise support, opener to cue bid
   On intervention, 2NT or   Double on intervention shows 16-17
   cue bid replaces 2D
   (2NT promises a stopper
    and cue bid asks for a
   2H/2S signoff            Natural
   0 - 7 To play
   2NT Balanced             Natural
   3C/3D/3H/3S              Natural
   6 carder headed with two
   top honors nothing else
   i) 2C is relay (8-11) asking for range on which only 2S by opener shows
      16-17 while 2D/2H/2NT show C suit with points/length. On 2S responder's
      2NT is stayman. Calls upto 3C/3D are sign offs
  ii) 2D is 12+ stayman on which only 2NT shows 13-15 C suit on which 3C is 
      relay and opener shows points and length of C suit. Calls 2H/2S/3C are
      16-17 and responder can there after  ascertain minors or second suit or
      reverse in 3H/3S on which opener bids NT with no fit, raises with 3 card 
      support with Q or less, and cue bids with fit (Axx or Kxx)
 iii) Jump to 3 shows only 6 carder with 2 top honors, nothing else in hand.
   13-16 seven carder very good suit, 7-8 playing tricks
   Effort is to play in NT by showing stoppers, not suits
   3D D stopper          3H:  H stopper, no S stopper
                        3S:  S stopper, no H stopper
                        3NT: S and H stopper
                        4C:  No stopper in H or S or both
   3H H stopper          3S:  D stopper, no S stopper (NOTE: critical suit is D)
   (no D stopper)        3NT: D and S stopper
                        4C:  no D stopper
   3S S stopper          3NT: H and D stopper
   (no D or H stopper)   4C:  No stopper either in H or D or in both
   3NT stoppers in       To play
   D,H and S
   4C inviting
   4D/4H/4S              Cue bid with fit, otherwise natural 
   semi-solid 6 carder, 
   12+ slam interest
   i) Bids shows stoppers. With stoppers missing in a suit, 4C is signoff
  ii) After 3C-3H, bid of 3S by opener shows stopper in D, the CRITICAL SUIT,
      and denies stopper in S
 iii) Jump by responder in new suit is 12+, six carder semi-solid suit, slam
   13-16 Very Good C Suit, normally six carder
   13-16 only C Suit OR 15-16 with a side suit
   2D Relay     2H   15-16, 4 carder H
                    Pass/2NT/3C/3D To play
                    2S: 12+ five carder S (reverse)
                    3H: Minimum 4 carder support, opener to cue bid
                    3S: 12+, 4 card D, 6 carder semi-solid S
                    4C: 12+, five card support in H, responder was going to
                        reverse, no control in D, waiting bid not necessarily
                         control in C
                     4D: 12+, five card support in H, control in D
                     4H: To play
               2S   15-16, 4 carder S
                    Pass/2NT/3C/3D: To play
                    3H: 12+, five card H (reverse)
                    3S: Minimum 4 card support, opener to cuebid
                    4C: 12+ five card support in S, responder was going to
                        reverse. no control in D, waiting bid not necessarily
                        control in C
                     4D: Same as above, control in D
                    4H: 12+, 4 card D, six carder semi-solid H
                    4S: To play
                2NT  13-16 C suit, stoppers in two side suits
                    3C: To Play
                    3D: Relay for NT probe
                        3H  stoppers in H and D
                        3S  stoppers in S and D
                        3NT stoppers in H and S
                     3H: 12+, five card H (reverse). D may be waiting bid
                        3NT  no support for H
                        3S   fit in H, stopper in S, not in D
                        4C   fit in H, stopper on D but not a control
                        4D   fit in H, control in D
                         4H   Qxx or less support, hence no cue bid
                             (fit means min Axx or Kxx support)
                     3S: 12+, 5 card S (reverse)
                        3NT no support for S
                        4C  fit in S, stopper in H or S but not a control
                        4D  fit in S, control in D, no control or stopper in H
                        4H  fit in S, control in H, no control or stopper in D
                        4S  Qxx or less 3 card support, hence no cue bid
               3C   13-16 C suit, stopper in one side suit
                    3D Relay NT Probe
                       3H  stopper in H
                       3S  stopper in S
                       3NT stopper in D
                     3H 12+, 5 carder H (reverse) D may be waiting bid
                       3S  stopper in S, no support for H
                       3NT no stopper in S, no support for H,stopper in D
                        4C  fit in H, no control in D
                       4D  fit in H, control in D
                       4H  Qxx or less 3 card support
                     3S 12+, 5 card S (reverse) D may be waiting bid
                       3NT no support in S, stopper either in H or D
                       4C  fit in S, no control in D
                       4D  fit in S, control in D
                       4H  Qxx or less 3 card support
                     4H/4S: 4 card D, six card semi-solid H/S, slam intention
                3D   15-16, 4 card D
                    3H: 12+, 5 carder, opener to bid naturally
                    3S: 12+, 5 carder, opener to bid naturally
                    3NT/4C: To play
                    4D: Support, opener to cue bid
                 3H/3S/4D: 15-16, 6-5 distribution, responder bids naturally
                4C: 15-16 very good C suit
   2H/2S 6-10, 5 card  4C: 15-16, opener was going to reverse in H/S, no control
   non-forcing             in D
                       4D: 15-16, opener was going to reverse in H/S, control in
                          C and D
   2NT 11-12 balanced  Natural
   3C 8-10 raise       Natural
   3D/3H/3S 12+        Raise with Qx or better or rebid C or 3NT
   semi-solid six
   i) Responder's 2H/2S is weak, non forcing on which opener's jump to 4C/4D
      shows 15-16 with 4 card support and control.
  ii) Responder's 2D is relay, openers 2NT/3C shows only C suit with stoppers 
      in side suits and relay of 3D is relay asking for suits stopped, but
      responder's second round bid of 3H/3S shows 12+, reversible hand with 5 
      carder suit (D may have been waiting bid) on which opener cue bids  with
      a fit(Axx, Kxx) and gives a waiting bid of 4C without controls in side
      suits. With only Qxx or less 3 card support, opener raises it 4H/4S 
      without cue bidding
 iii) Responder's 2D is relay and opener's 2H/2S shows 15-16 with 4 carder H/S 
      on which responder's jump to 4C/4D shows 12+, reversible hand in opener's
      second suit and controls in D
  iv) Opener's jump in second suit show 15-16, 6-5 distribution.
                               PART VI
                   DEVELOPMENT OF SUIT CALLS OF ONE (13-16)
Minimum 4 carder, D may be 3 carder with a C suit
1. REBIDS BY OPENER: Single suiter hands
   13-14 Minimum NT, Rebid original suit, raise partner's suit
   15-16 Jump to 2NT: Weak six carder, at best AJ
         Jump in original suit: semi-solid six carder
2. REBIDS BY OPENER: Two suiter hands
   13-14  Minimum NT, lower suit, raise partner's suit, simple rebid (with S and
          D, 4 carder open 1S and then D with no tolerance for H but tolerance
          for C so that if partner bids 2H, opener can bid 2NT showing minimum. 
          With tolerance for H, but no tolerance in C, open 1D)
          Canape' style, second suit is at least as long as first (may be 4-4)
          but EXCEPTION: After 1NT, response, first suit may be longer than 
          second as effort is to find the best fit on unbalanced hands
   15-16  Reverse at 2 level, or above: canape', second suit always 5 carder
          Jump in second lower or higher suit, first suit 4 carder (may not
          be biddable), second suit semi-solid six carder but EXCEPTION: If
          second suit is C, then first suit is semi-solid six carder and C
          is only 4 carder because 15-16 hands with a good C suit and a side
          suit are opened as 2C.
          Jump to 3 or 4 level in partner's major: reversible hand with 5 card 
          support or 15-16, 4-4-4-1 with 4 card support.
          Jump to 4C on 2C/2D response shows first suit semi-solid six carder
          and 4 card C as partner's 2C/2D may be waiting bid. Partner to join
          first suit with Qx or better.
          Jump to 4D on 2D response shows first suit 4 carder, six carder semi-
          solid D suit as partner's 2D may be a waiting bid. Partner to start 
          cue bidding as he has already shown values in D, by bidding 2D
          even 3 carder
          Jump to 4C/4D on partner's response of 1H/1S, shows reversible hand 
          in H/S, game certain, first round control in C/D. Direct jump to 
          4H/4S denies FIRST ROUND control in C/D
 5-5 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher
           15-16 lower/higher/lower
 5-6 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher/lower
           15-16 lower/higher/lower/higher
 6-5 hands 13-14 higher/lower/higher/higher
           15-16 lower/higher/lower/higher
3. REBIDS BY OPENER: Three suiter hands 4-4-4-1
   13-14   Select better two suits and bid higher/lower
   15-16   Treat as 13-14 as hand is not treated as of higher range unless at 
           least one suit is good 5 carder but give a jump to 3 level in 
           partner's major.
   First Round        Second Round
   1 over 1: 6+       Minimum NT, rebid, raise, lower suit(canape'): 8 - 10
                     Reverse at 2/3 level: 12+, first suit 4 carder, second 
                      suit always 5 carder
                     Jump in same suit: (9-10) semi-solid six carder
                     Jump in new suit: 12+, semi-solid six carder. first 
                     suit 4 carder
                     Jump to 3 in opener's original minor (1D): 9-10 five card
                     support, non-forcing
                     Jump to 3 in opener's first major: 12+, superfit
     1NT 8-10         Natural
     2C/2D:11+ May    Reverse canape': 12+, second suit 5 carder, C/D may be
     be 3 carder      3 carder
     with values,
     forcing up to    Jump in new suit: 12+, 4 card C/D, six carder semi-solid
     2NT              suit, unless it is a superfit call for opener's major
                     Superfit call in opener's major, 12+
                     New lower suit at 3 level (3C after 2D) canape': forcing,
                     D minimum 4 carder, C 4 or 5 carder
      2H over 1S      Natural
      11+ minimum
      4 card, forcing New lower suit at 3 level, canape', forcing
      to 2NT
      Jump to 2NT     Natural
      11-12 Dead 
      Jump in new     Natural
      suit,12+ semi-
      solid 6 carder
      Jump to 4C on   Gerber Ace asking, opener to show 0-1-2-3-4 step wise
      opener's 1H/1S
      Jump to 3 in    Natural
      opener's major
      10-11 limit bid
      Jump to 4 in    Natural
      opener's major
      7-9, five card
      support, one
    i) 15-16 hands are to be treated as 13-14 unless the hand contains at least
       one good five carder.
   ii) Single suiter hands are bid by opener by min NT, raise, rebid,lower suit,
       if 13-14 and by jump to 2NT if 15-16. Jump in suit always promises six
       carder semi-solid suit.
  iii) Two suiter hands 13-14 are bid canape' style higher/lower. With S & D as 
       suits 4-4, open S with tolerance for C and D with tolerance for H. Three 
       suiter 4-4-4-1 hands are opened selecting the 2 best suits, in canape' 
   iv) Two suiter 15-16 hands are opened lower/higher (second suit always five
       carder). Jump in second suit promises first suit 4 carder, second suit 
       semi-solid six carder (except when jump is in C, in which case C is
       4 carder and first suit is semi-solid). Jump in responser's suit shows 
       reversible hand, five card support.
    v) Responder's 2 over 1 is forcing to 2NT level. Response of 2C/2D may be 
       three carder with values in the suit to prepare for reverse or show
       superfit in opener's major.
   vi) Responder's second jump in own suit is limited semi-solid six carder but 
       first round jump in a suit or second round jump in new suit shows semi-
       solid six carder with first suit as 4 carder (unless superfit calls are
  vii) Responder's second round jump in opener's minor (D) is limited, 
       non-forcing, but in opener's major is forcing.
                               PART VII
                           DEFENSIVE BIDDING
1. TWO SUITER HANDS 5 - 5 (3rd and 4th position)
   Legend: SAPV (Strength as per vulnerability)
           weak:    6-11, Non-vul vs Vul
           Normal:  13-15, equal vulnerability
           Strong:  16+, Vul vs Non-vul
   Jump to 2NT or           Two lowest suits, SAPV
   2NT on 1NT
   Jump to 3C on 1D/1H/1S   Two remaining suits, SAPV
   Jump to 2D on 1C         Two major suits, SAPV
   Cue bid on 1D/1H/1S      Two extreme suits, SAPV
   2C on 1C                 8+, good 6 carder suit, rule of 2 & 3
   Jump to 3C on 1C         Two extreme suits, SAPV
        (cue bid)
   If strength does not match SAPV calls above, the two suits are bid in a 
   natural manner. Partner bids naturally showing preference in two suits with a
   jump or cue bid if in game zone.
2. OTHER OVERCALLS: (2nd Position)
                                       Partner's bids
   1 over 1: 8+, good five carder        Natural
                                       Cue bid shows 12+ and asks for stopper
                                       Jump in new suit shows semi-solid six
                                       carder, 12+
   2 over 1: 8+ good 6 carder            Same as above, rule of 2 and 3
   1NT  or 2NT on opening of             2C stayman
   2C/2D/2H/2S: 16-18 with
                                         2H/2S signoff
                                       Cue bid asking for second stopper
                                       failing which suit
                                         Jump to 3 in a suit, six carder suit 
                                       headed with two honors, nothing else
                                       in hand
    Two suiter calls SAPV                Simple preference to play
                                       Jump or cue bid forcing
    Jump in a new suit, semi-solid       Raise, non-forcing
    six carder, SAPV (ITEM 1)            Jump or cue bid forcing
    Double on strong 1C: 16+             Jump or 1NT with 8+
    Double, 13+, 3 card support in       Pass at 1 level 9+, five carder good
    each remaining suit, max double-     same suit as opener asking doubler to
    ton in opener's suit or 16+, 3       lead the suit to force opener to play
    card support not necessary           in NT
                                       Pass at 2 level, 10+, min. 4 cards in
                                       opener's suit with two winners in that
                                       Simple bid after which if doubler bids 
                                       again, he shows 16+
                                       Jump in a suit, 10+, min 4 carder
                                       Cue bid 12+, asking for stopper
    Double followed by 1NT               2C stayman
    19-21 with a stopper                 2H/2S signoff
                                       Cue bid, 6+
                                       Jump in a new suit, 6+ forcing
    Double followed by jump or           Natural
    cue bid 21+
    i) Double of a suit call shows hand of same strength as opener's with min.
       3 card support in remaining suits. Jump by partner shows 10+, cue bid 
       shows 12+. If partner responds without jump, doubler must pass with
       13-15, but may take another bid with 16_, jump or cue bid with 19+. If
       16+, 3 card support in remaining suits is not necessary.
   ii) Simple 1NT/2NT overcall shows 16-18 with a stopper, but if initial
       double, it shows 19-21 with a stopper.
  iii) Special bids for two suiters are used specifying strength of the hand. If
       the strength does not fit in the specified calls, hand is bid in a 
       natural fashion.
   iv) Simple 1 over 1 over calls shows good five carder suit while 2 over 1 
       shows 8+, with very good six carder suit
    v) Jump in a new suit shows semi-solid six carder suit, strength varying
       according to vulnerability.
3. OTHER OVERCALLS: Fourth position, BALANCING when RHO has passed
                                        Partner's bid
   1 over 1: 8+ good five carder     Pass with less than 11
                                     Suit, raise: 11+
                                    Jump or cue bid: 13+
   1NT: 8-10 with a stopper          2C Stayman
   2NT without jump (10-11 with      Others natural
   2 over 1: 8+, good six carder     Same as 1 over 1
   rule of 2 and 3
   Double: 11+, min. 3 card support  Pass 11+, good five card same suit as 
   in remaining suits, maximum       opener.
   doubleton in opener's suit. With
   13+,take second bid in next round 1NT: 8 - 11 with stopper
                                    Jump, Cue bid, 13+
   Jump in a new suit:  semi-        Natural
   solid six carder, SAPV
   2C on 1NT asking for preference   2D: Preference for H
   in majors 11+                     2H: Preference for S
                               PART VIII
1. Principles
   - lower of the touching honors unless lead is from top of sequence against
     NT contract, in which case lead top of sequence
   - K from three honors unless it is AK doubleton
   - A from AK
   - 10 from J10xx or broken sequence
   - 3rd best from even number of cards and lowest from odd number of cards
2. Leads
   Lead                      From
   ----                      ----
   A                         AKx
   K                         AK, AKQ, KQJ, KQ10
   Q                         KQx, Qx, QJ10, QJ9 against NT
   J                         QJx, Jx, J10, J109, J108 against NT
   10                        J10x, 10x, A109, K109, Q109, 1098, J108 against NT
   9                         109x, 9x
   3rd best                  Even number of cards, Rule of 12
   lowest                    odd number of cards, Rule of 10 
                             3 cards with an honor (A,K,Q,J or 10)
   MUD                       3 cards without an honor
                            (Middle, Up, Down: MUD)